Resource Library:

CLF Publications

For over a decade, the Carbon Leadership Forum has been releasing publications to advance scientific analysis, quantification, and methodology necessary to understand the carbon impact of design, materials, and construction, and to enable collective action to reduce embodied carbon throughout the industry.

Targeting Net-Zero Embodied Carbon

This document provides an overview of three types of embodied carbon reduction targets, and also examples of corporate and other voluntary commitments to reduce embodied carbon.  More information...

Carbon-Storing Materials

Summary Report | February 2021The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): “Limiting warming to 1.5 degrees C will require removing carbon from the atmosphere in addition to reducing...

2021 Material Baselines

Baseline Report | July 2021In order to set achievable targets, it is necessary to have a baseline from which to compare products within a material or product category. In January, the Carbon...

5 – Guidance on Implementing Buy Clean

This document aims to provide an overview of key stakeholders and strategies for addressing the implementation challenges related to Buy Clean policy. Version: December 17, 2020Buy Clean is a...

4 – Steps to Develop a Buy Clean Policy

This resource provides an overview of the five basic components of Buy Clean and highlights key choices at each step.  Version: December 17, 2020Buy Clean is a policy approach that aims to reduce...

Project reports

To see all of the project reports from CLF research projects, please go to the Research Projects page.


Journal publications

  • Waldman, B., Huang, M., & Simonen, K. (2020). Embodied carbon in construction materials: a framework for quantifying data quality in EPDsBuildings and Cities1(1), 625–636. DOI:
  • Rodriguez, B.X., Huang, M., Lee, H.W., Simonen, K., Ditto, J. Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing and Tenant Improvements Over the Building Lifetime: Estimating Material Quantities and Embodied Carbon for Climate Change Mitigation. Energy and Buildings.
  • Pierobon, F., Huang, M., Simonen, K., Ganguly, I.  Environmental benefits of using hybrid CLT structure in midrise non-residential construction: An LCA based comparative case study in the U.S. Pacific Northwest.  Journal of Building Engineering.
  • Huang, M., Simonen, K. (2019).  Comparative environmental analysis of seismic damage in buildings.  Journal of Structural Engineering.
  • Rodriguez, B. X., Simonen, K., Huang, M., & De Wolf, C. (2019). A taxonomy for whole building life cycle assessment (WBLCA)Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, 8(3), 190-205.
  • Simonen, Huang, Aicher, & Morris. (2018). Embodied carbon as a proxy for the environmental impact of earthquake damage repairEnergy & Buildings, 164, 131-139.
  • Simonen, K., Rodriguez, B., & De Wolf, C. (2017). Benchmarking the Embodied Carbon of BuildingsTechnology|Architecture Design, 1(2), 208-218.
  • Cooper, J., Fava, J., Simonen, K., Boyd, S., Baer, S. (2012) Status of North American Life Cycle Inventory Data.  Journal of Industrial Ecology, 16(3), 287-289.

Conference proceedings

  • Rodriguez, B.X., Amany, L., Simonen, K. (2019) “Embodied and Operational Carbon of Typical Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems in Office Buildings in Washington State: A study of buildings registered under LEED v3 2009,” Sustainable Built Environment Conference, August 6-7,  Tokyo, Japan.
  • Rodriguez, B.X., Simonen, K., Lee, H.W., Huang, M. (2018) “Embodied Carbon in MEP Systems: A Simplified Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Method for MEP systems in Standard Commercial Office Buildings of the Pacific Northwest,” 3rd International Graduate Student Symposium of the PhD Program IIT College of Architecture, Chicago, IL, November 16-18, 2018.
  • Ianchenko, A., Wang, Y., Simonen, K., Wang, N. (2018)  “Residential Building Lifespan and Community Resilience,” 4th Residential Building Design and Construction Conference, February 28 – March 1, 2018, State College, PA.
  • Masoomi, H., van de Lindt, J., Peek, L., Tobin-Gurley, J., Simonen, K.  (2017) “Predicting Tornado Damage and Recovery Through Coarse Modeling of Physical-Socio-Economic Interactions at the Community Level,” Architectural Engineering Institute (AEI) Conference 2017, April 11-13, Oklahoma City, OK.
  • Simonen, K. (2015) “Testing Whole Building LCA: Research and Practice”, 2015 AIA/ACSA Intersections Conference, Atlanta, GA, May 13, 2015.
  • Simonen, K., Almufti, Il, Merrifield, S., Strobel, K., Tipler, J. (2015) “Integrating Environmental Impacts as Another Measure of Earthquake Performance for Tall Buildings in High Seismic Zones”, 2015 Structures Congress, April 23-25, Portland, OR.
  • Simonen, K. (2014) “Life Cycle Assessment Challenges and Structural Materials,” in Sustainable Structures Symposium, April 17-18, Portland, OR.
  • Court, A., Simonen, K, Webster, M., Trusty, W & Morris, P. (2012), “Linking Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Criteria to Environmental Performance,” 2012 Structures Congress, March 29-31, Chicago, IL.
  • Simonen, K., & Haselbach, L. (2012), “Environmental Product Declarations for Building Materials and Products: U.S. Policy and Market Drivers,” International Symposium on Life Cycle Assessment and Construction, July 10-12, Nantes, France.
  • Court, A., Simonen, K., Webster, M., Trusty, W., Morris, P. (2012) “Linking Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Criteria to Environmental Performance,” ASCE SEI 2012 Structures Congress, March 29-31, Chicago, IL.
  • Simonen, K., Moore, E., Cooper, J. & Sianchuk, R. (2011), “Teaching Building Life Cycle Assessment: LCA in Architecture & Engineering Education,” Building Technology Educators Society Conference, August 4-7, Toronto, ON.



  • Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings-Methodology for Assessing Environmental Impacts” (2012) A. Court, P. Morris, K. Simonen, W. Trusty, M. Webster & J. Heintz. Report prepared in consultation by the Applied Technology Council for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Accessible at
  • Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Buildings Research for Washington State” K. Simonen, L. Haselbach, E. Oniel, J. Cooper. Delivered to State on September 1, 2012.